Stormwater Research Priorities and Pond Maintenance Research Project

Stormwater Research Priorities and Pond Maintenance Research Project

Stormwater Research Priorities and Pond Maintenance Research Project

This research project will develop information required to improve stormwater pond maintenance, identify and create a ten-year framework of stormwater research needs, and provide for education and training to disseminate the results.

Assessment of Stormwater Best Management Practices

Assessment of Stormwater Best Management Practices

Project Staff:

Principal Investigators: James L. Anderson, Professor, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate and John S. Gulliver, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering

Funding:

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Assessment of Stormwater Best Managment Practices Manual

For the latest version of the manual, visit http://stormwater.safl.umn.edu/

Summary:

The University of Minnesota, through contract with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, is developed a Guidance Document that outlined and explained proper methodology for the assessment of stormwater best management practices (BMPs). The document promotes the "Four Levels of Assessment" which increase in difficulty and cost from 1 to 4:

  1. Visual Inspection
  2. Capacity Testing
  3. Synthetic Runoff testing
  4. Monitoring

The Guidance Document has organized existing stormwater BMPs into categories according to the process by which pollutants are removed from stormwater runoff:

  • Biologically Enhanced Practices
  • Filtration Practices
  • Infiltration Practices
  • Sedimentation Practices
  • Source Reduction

More information:

Andy Erickson, M.S.
Research Fellow
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory
University of Minnesota
2 Third Ave. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55414
Phone: 612-624-4629
E-mail: eric0706@umn.edu

Onsite Sewage Treatment Program

Onsite Sewage Treatment Program

Project description:

More information on the Onsite Sewage Treatment Program website: http://septic.umn.edu/

Effects of Endocrine Disrupters from St. Paul Sewage Treatment Plant on Sperm Viability and Testicular Development in Fish

Effects of Endocrine Disrupters from St. Paul Sewage Treatment Plant on Sperm Viability and Testicular Development in Fish

Project Staff:

Principal Investigators: Peter Sorensen, Professor, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology; Heiko Schoenfuss, Research Associate, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology; Ira Adelman, Professor and Head, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology; and Deborah L. Swackhamer, Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health

Funding:

USGS-WRRI 104B/ CAIWQ Competitive Grants Program

Project Duration:

March 1998 - February 2001

Objective:

The objective of this study is to determine whether fish exposed to compounds found in the effluent of the St. Paul (Minnesota) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) experience sex reversal and suffer from reduced sperm viability as a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs).

Publications:

Schoenfuss, H. L., J. T. Levitt, G. Van Der Kraak, and P. W. Sorensen. 2002. Ten week exposure to treated sewage effluent discharge has small, variable effects on reproductive behavior and sperm production in goldfish. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 21 (10): 2185-2190.

Choenfuss, H.L., D. Martinovic, and P.W. Sorensen. 2001. Effects of exposure to low levels of water-borne 17b-estradiol on nest holding ability and sperm quality in fathead minnows. Water Resources Update 120: 49-55.

Summary:

The objective of this study is to determine whether fish exposed to compounds found in the effluent of the St. Paul (Minnesota) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) experience sex reversal and suffer from reduced sperm viability as a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This study was part of a larger effort to identify the effects of endocrine disrupters on the reproductive health of fish populations. EDCs are man-made or naturally occurring compounds that are found in the environment and disrupt hormonal pathways causing harm to the exposed organisms or their offspring.

More information:

Conference Proceedings

Martinovic, D.,P.W. Sorensen and H.L. Schoenfuss. 2003. Low levels of water-borne estrogen suppress androgen levels and the ability to male fathead minnow to reproduce in the competitive spawning scenario. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Water, R. Masters (ed.), Minneapolis, MN, March 19-21, 2003, pp. 125-133.

Levitt, J. T., H. L. Schoenfuss, I. R. Adelman. 2001. Possible Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds on Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, near the Metro Sewage Treatment Plant, Saint Paul, MN. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Pharmaceutics and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, D. Guth (ed.), Minneapolis, MN, October 9-11, 2001, pp. 191-202.

Schoenfuss, H.L. 2003.The need for novel approaches in assessing the biological impact of biologically active compounds. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Water, R. Masters (ed.), Minneapolis, MN, March 19-21, 2003, pp. 103-121.

Characterization of Nitrifying Bacterial Populations in Wastewater Treatment Plants

Characterization of Nitrifying Bacterial Populations in Wastewater Treatment Plants

Project Staff:

Principal Investigator: Timothy LaPara, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering

Funding:

USGS-WRRI 104B/ CAIWQ Competitive Grants Program

Project Duration:

March 2002 - February 2004

Summary:

Excessive nitrogen loading to the Mississippi River basin has been recently linked to the development of large hypoxic zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there is renewed interest in achieving complete nitrogen removal from municipal and industrial wastewater. One of the most critical challenges that must be addressed before complete nitrogen removal can be consistently achieved is to reduce and eliminate upsets in the nitrification process. Nitrifying bacteria are well known to be susceptible to numerous factors such as temperature, pH, and toxic compounds. One of the problems with eliminating nitrification upsets is that there is virtually a complete lack of knowledge regarding the community dynamics of nitrifying bacteria. The research will track both nitrifier community structure and total biomass at a municipal wastewater treatment facility for a period of one year. This research will identify the specific nitrifying bacteria that are associated with excellent nitrification efficiency, thereby leading towards the development of specific operational strategies to promote the growth of these nitrifying bacteria. In summary, this research will be an important step in reducing the total nitrogen loading to the Mississippi River basin and northern Gulf of Mexico.

Enhanced Degradation of Stormwater Petrochemicals within the Rhizosphere of Raingarden Bioretention Cells

Enhanced Degradation of Stormwater Petrochemicals within the Rhizosphere of Raingarden Bioretention Cells

Project Staff:

Principal Investigator: Paige Novak, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota

Funding:

USGS-WRRI 104B/ CAIWQ Competitive Grants Program

Project Duration:

March 2008 - February 2009

Publications:

Conference Proceedings

Hozalski, R., G.LeFevre, J. Gulliver. Assessment of the Stormwater Infiltration and Pollutant Removal Capacities of Rain Gardens. EWRI/ASCE Thailand 09: An International Perspective on Environmental and Water Resources, January 5−7, 2009, Bangkok, Thailand.

Nelson, D. and P. Novak. 2007. Fermentation as a Method to Enhance Dissolution of Hydrophobic Compound. Poster Presentation. Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors Interactions at the Interface Conference July 28 – August 1, 2007, Blacksburg, VA.

Other Publications

Weiss, P., G. LeFevre, J. Gulliver. June 23, 2008. Contamination of Soil and Groundwater Due to Stormwater Infiltration Practices: A Literature Review. University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Project Report No. 515.

Summary:

Traditional approaches to stormwater management, such as curb and gutter, fail to provide infiltration or water quality improvements and can act as conduits for pollutants. More municipalities and developers are turning to Low Impact Development (LID), which promotes on-site infiltration as alternative stormwater management approaches. Rain gardens (small, on-site, vegetated depressions to which runoff is directed) as a popular Best Management Practice (BMP) for urban stormwater quality. However, there is concern that contaminants present in the runoff may accumulate and cause pollution of soil or groundwater. Little research has been done to examine the fate of hydrocarbons in alternative stormwater systems or to understand rain gardens as a pollution control device. In order to truly be effective as a pollution control BMP, a rain garden must not only trap and detain, but degrade petrochemicals routed to them. Because most rain gardens are vegetated, It is also vital to understand the role of plants in pollution control applications of rain gardens.

We propose to create simulated rain garden systems in columns and analyze the fate of benzene and toluene (gasoline components), and to determine what effects varying vegetation have upon the degradation capacity of these hydrocarbons. It is our hypothesis that legumes, which posses an enhanced microbial community in the rhizosphere of their roots, will facilitate an environment leading to greater biodegradation of these compounds.

Photochemical Fate of Pharmaceutical Compounds Discharged and Detected in Natural Waters

Photochemical Fate of Pharmaceutical Compounds Discharged and Detected in Natural Waters

Project Staff:

Principal Investigators: William Arnold, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering; K. McNeill, Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota

Additional Staff: J. L. Packer, Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering; D. E. Latch, and A. L. Boreen, Research Assistants, Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota

Funding:

USGS-WRRI 104G National Grants Competition

Project Duration:

September 2001 - August 2003

Summary:

Recent studies have detected numerous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in US surface waters. The potential environmental impact of these chemicals will be dictated by their persistence in the environment and the biological activity of any degradation products. One potential loss process for pharmaceuticals and personal care products is photodegradation. In this work, the direct photolysis and indirect photolysis (hydroxyl radical mediated and singlet oxygen mediated) of selected PPCPs was investigated. To date, the fate of the antacids cimetidine and ranitidine hydrochloride and the antimicrobial compounds triclosan and chlorophene have been studied. All the compounds studied react with hydroxyl radical at nearly diffusion limited rates, but given the low concentration of hydroxyl radical in natural waters, other processes appear to be more important. The heterocyclic groups in cimetidine and ranitidine hydrochloride are susceptible to attack by singlet oxygen. Ranitidine hydrochloride is subject to direct photolysis while cimetidine is not. Direct photolysis occurs rapidly for triclosan and chlorophene when these compounds are present in the deprotonated phenolate form. These compounds also react with singlet oxygen, but preliminary results indicate that direct photolysis is the dominant photo-initiated loss process. The direct photolysis of triclosan at pH >8.0 leads to the formation of 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin in yields ranging from 1-10%. This result underscores the importance of identifying the transformation products and not just the degradation rates. (Findings from this research were featured in the Minneapolis Star Tribune and St. Paul Pioneer Press on April 14, 2003.)

Photochemistry of Antibiotics and Estrogens in Surface Water: Persistence and Potency

Photochemistry of Antibiotics and Estrogens in Surface Water: Persistence and Potency

Project Staff:

Principal Investigators: Kristopher McNeill, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, William Arnold, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Deborah L Swackhamer, Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Co-Director of the Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota

Funding:

USGS-WRRI 104G National Grants Competition

Project Duration:

September 2003 - August 2005

Reports and Publications:

Books and Book Chapters

Arnold, W. A., and K. McNeill. 2007. Transformation of pharmaceuticals in the environment: Photolysis and other abiotic processes In M. Petrovic and D. Barcelo, Eds. Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle, Volume 50. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier Science. 600 pp.

Refereed Scientific Journal Articles

Werner, J. J., K. H. Wammer, M. Chintapalli, W. A. Arnold, and K. McNeill. 2007. Environmental photochemistry of tylosin: efficient, reversible photoisomerization to a less−active isomer, followed by photolysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(17): 7062−7068.

Werner, J.J., W.A. Arnold., and K. McNeill. 2006. Water Hardness as a Photochemical Parameter: Tetracycline Photolysis as a Function of Calcium Concentration, Magnesium Concentration, and pH.Environmental Science & Technology 40: 7236−7241.

Edhlund, B. L., W. A. Arnold, and K. McNeill. 2006. Aquatic Photochemistry of Nitrofuran Antibiotics, Environmental Science & Technology 40: 5422−5427.

Wammer, K. H., T. M. LaPara, and K. McNeill, W. A. Arnold, D. L. Swackhamer. 2006. Changes in Antibacterial Activity of Triclosan and Sulfa Drugs due to Photochemical Transformations. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 25: 1480−1486.

Boreen, A. L., W. A. Arnold, and K. McNeill. 2005. Triplet−sensitized photodegradation of sulfa drugs containing six−membered heterocyclic groups: Identification of an SO2 extrusion photoproduct,Environmental Science & Technology 39: 3630−3638.

Werner, J.J., K. McNeill, and W. A. Arnold. 2005. Environmental photodegradation of mefenamic acid. Chemosphere 58: 1339−1346.

Latch, D. E., J. L. Packer, B. L. Stender, J. VanOverbeke, W. A. Arnold and K. McNeill. 2005. Aqueous photochemistry of triclosan: Formation of 2,4−dichlorophenol, 2,8−dichlorodibenzo−p−dioxin and oligomerization products,Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry. 24(3): 517−525.

Boreen, A. L., W. A. Arnold and K. McNeill. 2004. Photochemical fate of sulfa drugs in the aquatic environment: Sulfa drugs containing five−membered heterocyclic groups,Environmental Science & Technology, 38: 3933−3940

Theses and Dissertations

Latch D. E. 2005. Environmental photochemistry: Studies on the degradation of pharmaceutical pollutants and the microheterogeneous distribution of singlet oxygen. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, 256 pp.

Boreen, A. L. 2006. Enhanced photolysis in natural waters: naturally occurring sensitizers and substrates and application to the fate of aquatic pollutants. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 263 pp.

Werner, J. J. 2006. The environmental photochemistry of pharmaceutical compounds in aqueous solution and on a clay surface. Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Program in Water Resources Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 119 pp.

Conference Proceedings

Werner, J.J., W. A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2006. Environmental photochemistry of the antibiotic compound tetracycline: dependence on acid−base and metal binding speciation. Paper presented at the Minnesota Water 2005 and Annual Water Resources Joint Conference, Brooklyn Center, MN, October 25−26, 2006.

Werner, J.J., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2006. The environmental photochemical kinetics of tetracycline as a function of pH and water hardness. Presented in Environmental Chemistry Awards, Environmental Chemistry Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September, 2006.

Edhlund, B.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2006. Aquatic Photochemistry of Nitrofuran Antibiotics. Poster Presentation. Environmental Sciences: Water Gordon Research Conference, Plymouth, NH, June 25−June 30, 2006.

Arnold, W.A. and H. Dolliver. 2006. Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater: Fate, Transport, and Effects. Minnesota Groundwater Spring 2006 Conference, St. Paul, MN, April 12, 2006.

Werner, J.J., and K. McNeill. 2005. Water Hardness as a Critical Photochemical Parameter: The Case of Tetracycline Antibiotics, Pacifichem 2005 Congress,Symposium on Environmental Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Anticipating, Understanding and Intercepting Future Environmental Crises, Honolulu, HI, December 15, 2005.

Edhlund B.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2005. Aquatic Photochemistry of Nitrofuran Antibiotics. Poster Presentation. Minnesota ACS Meeting, St. Paul, MN, November 2005.

Edhlund, B.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2005. Aquatic Photochemistry of Nitrofuran Antibiotics. Poster Presentation. Minnesota Water 2005 and Annual Water Resources Joint Conference, Brooklyn Center, MN, October 2005.

Edhlund, B.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2005. Aquatic Photochemistry of Nitrofuran Antibiotics. Poster Presentation. ENVR, 230th ACS National Meeting, Washington, DC, August 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Photochemical approaches to environmental pharmaceutical pollutants, American Chemical Society ACS National Meeting Symposium: Strategies and Molecular Mechanisms of Contaminant Degradation Chemistry,Washington, D.C., August 28−Sept. 1, 2005.

Werner, J.J., K. McNeill, W.A. Arnold. 2004. Speciation−dependent photochemistry of tetracycline antibiotics: acid−base speciation and metal−binding effects. Oral Presentation. Midwest Environmental Chemistry Workshop, Madison, WI, October 16−17, 2004.

McNeill, K., W.A. Arnold. 2004. Contribution of photochemistry to the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface waters. Oral Presentation. ENVR, Presented at the special symposium on Environmental aspects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products at the 228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2004.

Boreen, A.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2004. Photochemical fate of sulfa drugs in the aquatic environment. Oral Presentation. ENVR, Presented at the special symposium on Environmental aspects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products at the 228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2004.

Wammer, K.H., K. McNeill, T.M. LaPara, W.A. Arnold, D.L. Swackhamer. 2004. Changes in potency of antibacterials in the environment due to photochemical transformations. Poster Presentation. ENVR, Presented at the special symposium on Environmental aspects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products at the 228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2004.

Werner, J.J., K. McNeill, W.A. Arnold. 2004. Kinetics of the environmental photodegradation of mefenamic acid. Poster Presentation. ENVR, Presented at the special symposium on Environmental aspects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products at the 228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 2004.

Arnold, W.A., J.J. Werner, K. McNeill. 2004. Kinetics of the environmental photodegradation of mefenamic acid. Poster Presentation. Environmental Sciences: Water Gordon Research Conference, Plymouth, NH, June 27−July 2, 2004.

McNeill, K. 2004. Photochemical fate of pharmaceutical pollutants. Gordon Research Conference, Environmental Sciences: Water, June 27−July 2, 2004.

Wammer, K.H., D.L. Swackhamer, W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2004. Photochemical transformations of antibacterial compounds. Poster Presentation. Environmental Sciences: Water Gordon Research Conference, Plymouth, NH, June 27−July 2, 2004.

Boreen, A.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2004. Photochemical fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment: Sulfa drugs. Oral Presentation. 9th Biennial MN Water Conference, Minneapolis, MN, March 23, 2004.

Werner, J.J., K. McNeill, W.A. Arnold. 2004. Photochemical fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Poster Presentation. 9th Biennial MN Water Conference, Minneapolis, MN, March 23, 2004.

Other Publications

Werner, J.J., A.L. Boreen, B. Edhlund, K.H. Wammer, E. Matzen, K. McNeill, W.A. Arnold. 2005. Photochemical transformation of antibiotics in Minnesota waters, CURA Reporter 35(2): 1−5.

Other Presentations

Edhlund, B.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2006. Aquatic Photochemistry of Nitrofuran Antibiotics. Celebrating Women Chemists Luncheon, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, February, 2006.

McNeill, K. 2006. Phototransformation Reactions of Antibiotic Pollutants, Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy Symposium on Degradation and Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Orlando, FL, March 12−17, 2006.

McNeill, K. 2005. Photosensitized reactions in natural waters: Implications for pollutant degradation and the carbon cycle, University of Minnesota−Morris, Department of Chemistry, October 27, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Photosensitized reactions in natural waters: Implications for pollutant degradation and the carbon cycle, University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry, September 20, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Photo−generated Reactive Species and the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Pollutants, Stanford University, Civil and Environmental Engineering Student Seminar Series, May 20, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Mechanistic Environmental Chemistry: Photo−generated Reactive Species and Pollutant Degradation, Cornell University, Department of Chemistry, March 7, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Mechanistic Environmental Chemistry: Photo−generated Reactive Species and Pollutant Degradation, University of Rochester, Department of Chemistry, March 4, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Mechanistic Environmental Chemistry: Photo−generated Reactive Species and Pollutant Degradation, University of California, Berkeley,Department of Chemistry, February 25, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2005. Mechanistic Environmental Chemistry: Photo−generated Reactive Species and Pollutant Degradation, Northwestern University, Department of Chemistry, February 18, 2005.

McNeill, K. 2004. Mechanistic Environmental Chemistry: Photo−generated Reactive Species and Pollutant Degradation, 3M, November 12, 2004.

Boreen, A.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2004. Photochemical fate of sulfa drugs in the aquatic environment. Physics and Chemistry Colloquium, Concordia College, Moorhead, MN, November, 2004.

Boreen, A.L., W.A. Arnold, K. McNeill. 2004. Photochemical fate of sulfa drugs in the aquatic environment. Celebrating Women Chemists Luncheon, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, September, 2004.

Summary:

Antibiotics and estrogens are two classes of wastewater contaminants that have been detected in US surface waters. The potentially adverse effects of these pollutants on water quality are unknown, but will be determined in part by their persistence. The proposed study will assess the effectiveness OD photochemical reactions initiated by sunlight to degrade different classes of antibiotics and estrogens and to modulate their biological activity. Specifically, the goals of this proposal are to determine the importance of photolysis as a loss process for a representative set of antibiotics and estrogens, to assess changes in the antibiotic activity and estrogenicity that occur during photolysis, and to identify the major reaction products and photolysis pathways involved. These goals will be achieved through laboratory kinetic studies, antibiotic activity and estrogenicity assays, as well as product identification through spectroscopic methods, isolation and independent synthesis. The results of this work will provide the scientific basis for informed decisions regarding antibiotic and estrogen pollution and the stewardship of our freshwater resources. The potential recipients of the benefits of this research include state and federal regulatory agencies, utilities responsible for water treatment operations, researchers focusing on treatment processes and toxicologists interested in potential biological effects of these compounds and their impacts on ecosystems.